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Assessment of nutritional status in the community and clinical settings
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
September-October 2014, 34(5):211-213
The nutritional status of an individual is usually a result of multiple factors that interact with each other at different levels. Recognizing the role of diet at the onset of many diseases and assessing the nutritional status of an individual, family and community are important for public health. The nutritional assessment is done to obtain information about the prevalence and geographic distribution of nutritional disorders within a community or a specified population group. It can also be used to identify high-risk groups and to assess the role of different epidemiological factors in nutritional deficiency. Assessment of the nutritional status aids assessing the prevalence of nutritional disorders, planning corrective measures, and evaluating the effectiveness of the implemented strategies simultaneously.
  194,400 4,246 8
Ethical issues of human cloning
Nasrullah , Rana Khalid Iqbal, Shahzadi BiBi, Sana Muneer, Sumaira BiBi, Farhana Naureen Anwar
May-June 2020, 40(3):103-106
Cloning can help us in the research field and medical sciences. But due to ethical and moral values, this idea is not supported. Moreover, it is against ethical values as well. According to modern studies, Human moral values are preferred rather than emotions, but they cannot be ignored. Despite the progress in the stem cell culture, it is still unable to avail the therapeutic benefits. It is said that cloning could be done in the near future, and it is closer to the reality and away from science fiction. Cloning can be carried out by two techniques termed as the somatic cell nuclear transfer and cell mass division. The cloned animal products obtained by the somatic cell nuclear transfer can be used, as they cause no harm and are safe as the noncloned animal products are. Certain harms are related to the twin's growth produced by the cloning procedure that also reinforces on the inhibition of human cloning, as it causes the psychological distress and destroys the universality of an individual, as well as certain ethical and moral values despite which human clones cannot be made. In somatic cell cloning the nucleus (nuclear mass/DNA) can solve many health problems for example organ transplantation, or organ rejection issues. Resulting of all these give rise to a great controversy that either clone of human beings should be produced or not. Although in the near future, the possibility of human clones and their use for different purposes cannot be ignored.
  50,042 1,793 1
Antimicrobial activities of cefoperazone-sulbactam in comparison to cefoperazone against clinical organisms from medical centers in Taiwan
Tsung-Ta Chiang, Hung-Jen Tang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Te-Li Chen, Mao-Wang Ho, Chen-Hsiang Lee, Wang-Huei Sheng, Ya-Sung Yang
November-December 2016, 36(6):229-233
Background: The multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNBs) have emerged as important pathogens recently. Cefoperazone-sulbactam is active against a great proportion of those MDRGNBs. However, the susceptibilities data of cefoperazone-sulbactam are lacking in Taiwan. Object: This study was conducted to evaluate the susceptibilities data of cefoperazone-sulbactam aganist commonly encountered clinical pathogens in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: 2272 isolates were collected from various clinical specimens from five centers in Taiwan in 2012. The agar dilution method was used to evaluate the susceptibility of the isolated pathogens to cefoperazone and cefoperazone-sulbactam. Result: cefoperazone-sulbactam showed better activity against various GNBs, including MDRGNBs and part of carbapenem-resistant isolates tested compared to cefoperazone alone. Conclusion: Cefoperazone-sulbactam is active against most commonly encountered clinical pathogens, including MDRGNBs and part of carbapenem-esistant A. baumannii complex. It can be a potentially therapeutic agent for treating infections caused by these pathogens in Taiwan.
  41,928 1,480 9
Tremors as an atypical presentation of cervical myelopathy
Melinda Hui Si Goh, Arun-Kumar Kaliya-Perumal, Jacob Yoong-Leong Oh
November-December 2019, 39(6):296-298
Tremors are common especially in the elderly population. However, tremors occurring secondary to cervical myelopathy are rarely reported. We report the case of a 91-year-old gentleman who was admitted to the neurology service with chief complaints of bilateral upper- and lower-limb tremors. This had progressed rapidly over 2 weeks to the extent that he was not able to feed himself and was unable to walk without support. An initial working diagnosis of Parkinson's disease was made but was later dismissed because of the atypical features. A magnetic resonance imaging of cervical spine was subsequently performed which revealed a large disc herniation at C3–C4 level, causing severe spinal canal stenosis and cord compression. Given this radiological presentation and the absence of other objective pathologies on further investigations, we correlated his symptoms to the underlying cervical cord compression. He underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion which led to complete resolution of tremors by 8 weeks postsurgery. His unsteadiness eventually resolved, and there was no recurrence of tremors throughout our follow-up period. This case highlights a rare atypical presentation of cervical myelopathy as peripheral limb tremors. The diagnostic dilemma, management strategies, and hypothesis to explain this phenomenon are discussed.
  26,109 420 5
Zolpidem increased cancer risk in patients with sleep disorder: A 3-year follow-up study
Sheng-Chiao Lin, Yu-Chieh Su, Yung-Sung Huang, Ching-Chih Lee
March-April 2016, 36(2):68-74
Background: Zolpidem has been increasingly used in patients with sleep disorder due to its minimal respiratory depressor effects and short half-life. Materials and Methods: Recent case reports indicate that zolpidem usage may be associated with increased cancer mortality. This study aimed to determine the impact of zolpidem usage on the risk of incident cancer events in sleep disorder patients over a 3-year follow-up. Of the 6924 subjects diagnosed with sleep disorder in 2004, 1728 had used zolpidem. A Cox proportional hazard model was performed to estimate 3-year cancer event-free survival rates for patients using zolpidem and those not using it, after adjusting for confounding and risk factors. Results: At the end of follow-up, 56 patients had incident cancers, 26 (1.5%) who used zolpidem, and 30 (0.6%) who did not. After adjustments for gender, age, comorbidities, and other medications, patients using zolpidem had a 1.75 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–3) greater risk of cancer events than those not using zolpidem during the 3-year follow-up. Greater mean daily dose and longer use were associated with increased risk. Among patients with sleep disorder, mean daily dose >10 mg and length of drug use >2 months was associated with 3.74 times greater risk (95% CI, 1.42–9.83; P = 0.008) of incident cancer events. Conclusions: In this study, zolpidem use increased cancer events risk in sleep disorder patients. Risks and benefits of chronic zolpidem usage should be explained to sleep disorder patients, and long-term use should be monitored.
  24,855 553 3
Development and validation of the short-form Ryff's psychological well-being scale for clinical nurses in Taiwan
Tony Szu-Hsien Lee, Huey-Fang Sun, Hui-Hsun Chiang
July-August 2019, 39(4):157-162
Background: Research into clinical nurses' psychological well-being (PWB) is limited and fragmented. A reliable and valid measure is needed to advance the field of nurses' mental health. Objective: To examine the psychometric validity of Short-Form PWB Scale (PWBSs) among clinical nurses. Methods: This study adopted a cross-sectional design. Randomized cluster sampling was used to recruit clinical nurses from a medical center in Taipei, Taiwan, from July to October 2015. Nurses were recruited if they worked for more than 3 months in the medical center. The 84-item PWBS was used to assess PWB. Based on exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis in this study, an 18-item version of Ryff's PWBS was developed using 474 respondents. The Short-Form PWBS was tested for internal consistency, construct validity, and criterion-related validity. Results: Cronbach's alpha was 0.88, with aggregated subscale alphas of 0.72–0.88, except 0.57 for autonomy. Good construct validity and criterion-related validity of the Short-Form PWBS were found. Conclusions: The study results showed that the Short-Form PWBS is suitable and recommended for Taiwanese clinical nurses.
  20,857 1,362 3
Yamaguchi syndrome – A pseudoacute coronary syndrome of the young: A case report on apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Alvin Oliver Payus, Farisha Mohd Sholeh, Norlaila Mustafa
July-August 2019, 39(4):197-199
Yamaguchi syndrome, or apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ApHCM), is a nonobstructive subtype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy which predominantly affects the left ventricular apex. Due to the nature of its presentation that mimics acute coronary syndrome and also to the unfamiliarity of the condition by some physicians, the diagnosis of ApHCM is frequently missed or delayed. Here, we report a case of a young male who presented with chest pain and breathlessness. His cardiac enzyme was normal and electrocardiogram showed giant negative T-waves. He was treated as unstable angina and was then subjected to a line of diagnostic procedures including coronary angiogram before he subsequently underwent ventriculogram which reveal a characteristic “spade-like” configuration over the left ventricle, in keeping with the diagnosis of ApHCM. The purpose of this case report is to emphasize the importance of keeping ApHCM as one of the differential diagnoses in a young patient presented with chest pain.
  19,642 445 2
Age estimation: Current state and research challenges
Abhishek Singh Nayyar, B Anand Babu, B Krishnaveni, M Vaishnavi Devi, HC Gayitri
November-December 2016, 36(6):209-216
There exist several methods and a fairly substantial literature on the field of age estimation. However, different methods are associated with varying degrees of uncertainty and precision, and this is not always well understood. From a statistical-methodological point of view, there are reasons to believe that a combination of different measurement methods and a more conscious use of the relevant statistical methodology may provide more reliable estimates and better quantification of associated levels of uncertainty. When the uncertainty is known, considering the acceptance level of the error rates, methods are to be found out to rectify it to the maximum possible extent to make it in acceptable limits with maximum validity as there are no methods, by which the age of an individual can be precisely estimated.
  17,115 1,233 4
Parotid abscess: 15-year experience at a tertiary care referral center in Taiwan
Li-Hsiang Cheng, Hsing-Won Wang, Chien-Ming Lin, Cheng-Ping Shih, Yueng-Hsiang Chu, Wei-Chen Hung, Wei-Yun Wang, Chih-Wei Wang, Jih-Chin Lee
September-October 2019, 39(5):231-235
Background: Parotid abscess is an uncommon condition, but it can cause potentially lethal systemic infections. The aim of this study was to analyze cases with parotid abscess during 15-year period and further determine the optimal diagnostic and therapeutic modalities at a tertiary medical center in Taiwan. Patients and Methods: Nineteen patients diagnosed with parotid abscess were retrospectively analyzed from November 2002 to October 2017. Patients' clinical symptoms, etiology, diagnostic methods, bacteriology, and antibiotic and surgical treatment were evaluated. Results: Among 19 patients diagnosed with parotid abscess, 12 were male and 7 were female. Their diagnostic ages ranged from 25 to 88 years (mean 55.5 years). The most common symptoms at initial presentation were painful swelling of the intra-auricular region and fever. Typical etiologies were odontogenic infections or poor oral hygiene. Thirteen out of 18 patients with drainage of abscess showed positive finding of bacterial cultures, and the most common pathogen was Klebsiella pneumoniae in six patients. One patient received intravenous antibiotics alone but eventually died of sepsis. In addition to antibiotic treatment, the other 18 patients underwent a combination of antibiotic treatment and drainage of abscess. Among them, 14 patients received surgical drainage and 4 patients received ultrasound-guided needle aspiration of abscess. After drainage, all had complete resolution of disease without recurrence or sequelae during at least 1 year of follow-up.Conclusions: This study highlights that K. pneumonia is an important pathogen of parotid abscess in consideration of the rapidly increasing cases of diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. In addition to early diagnosis, parotid abscess should be managed with broad-spectrum antibiotics, adequate hydration, and appropriate drainage to prevent unwanted morbidity and mortality.
  15,685 517 3
Pulsed radiofrequency therapy for relieving neuropathic bone pain in cancer patients
Wei-Li Lin, Bo-Feng Lin, Chen-Hwan Cherng, Billy K Huh, Hsin-I Ma, Shinn-Long Lin, Chih-Shung Wong, Chun-Chang Yeh
March-April 2014, 34(2):84-87
Metastatic bone pain is among the most commonly reported pain conditions in cancer patients and pharmacological therapy frequently fails to provide satisfactory pain relief. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) is a minimally invasive procedure and may be an effective alternative. However, there is little published data evaluating PRF treatment of metastatic pain. PRF therapy of select lumbar dorsal root ganglia was performed on two patients suffering from uncontrolled metastatic lumbar bone pain. After PRF therapy, the patients reported markedly improved back pain, and the effect lasted for months until they deceased. No complications or adverse events were noted from this minimally invasive procedure. PRF may be considered a potential intervention in treating certain neuropathic cancer pain conditions.
  14,312 536 6
Marine pharmacology: Potential, challenges, and future in India
Hemant R Kanase, Kritarth Naman M. Singh
March-April 2018, 38(2):49-53
More than 50% of the marketed drugs today are derived from natural sources. There are various cancers and diseases which cannot be managed well with the current available drugs. It is, therefore, important to identify new sources of drugs for the future. The biological diversity offered by the oceans shows promise in expressing some lead compounds for diseases which show a dearth of drug options for management. A handful of marine products have been approved by the United States – Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) because of the involvement of academia and the pharmaceutical industry. However, there are many challenges involved which deter a better and faster process for drug development from marine sources. The current scenario in India is in a nascent phase, but steps are being taken in the right direction to develop a potential source of new drugs. In this review article, we try to give an overview over the history and impending potential of marine pharmacology, with an overlook on the current approved marine-sourced drugs by the US-FDA. We also take a brief look over the challenges involved in the field of marine pharmacology, its current progress in India and possible future scope.
  13,670 1,109 11
Care bundle for ventilator-associated pneumonia in a medical intensive care unit in Northern Taiwan
Wen-Ping Zeng, Han Su, Chein-Wen Chen, Shu-Meng Cheng, Li-Fang Chang, Wen-Chii Tzeng, Bing-Hsiean Tzeng
March-April 2015, 35(2):68-73
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) occurs in patients requiring mechanical ventilators for more than 48 h. VAP is the most common nosocomial infection and the leading cause of complications and death in intensive care units (ICUs). Materials and Methods: Two historical comparison groups of 375 patients who used mechanical ventilators for more than 48 h in the medical ICU (MICU) from December 1, 2011 to May 31, 2012 and December 1, 2013 to May 31, 2014 were enrolled in this study. There were 194 adult patients in the control group that received traditional care, and there were 181 patients in the experimental VAP care bundle group. Our VAP care bundle entailed several preventive strategies including daily assessments of sedation, daily consideration of weaning and extubation by the doctors and respiratory therapists charged with the care of the patients, maintenance of the intra-cuff pressure values at approximately 20-30 cm H 2 O, hand hygiene, daily oral hygiene, personal protective equipment for suctioning, the placement of patients in semi-recumbent positions with the head of the bed elevated to at least 30°, aspiration of an endotracheal tube and oral cavity prior to position changes, daily cleaning of the ventilator and suction bottle with sterile distilled water, weekly replacement of the ventilator circuit and heater, sterilization of the circuit by pasteurization, and the use of an independent care room. The data were collected by reviewing the patients' medical records and by retrieving information from the Nosocomial Infection Control Unit of one medical center in Northern Taiwan. Results: The incidence of VAP in the VAP care bundle group (0.281 cases per 1000 ventilator days) was significantly lower than that in the control group (0.495 cases per 1000 ventilator days). We estimated that the occurrence of VAP in the MICU increased the medical costs by an average of NT $68317 per patient. Conclusions: VAP care bundle is an effective strategy to reduce the incidence of VAP in the MICU and to reduce healthcare costs.
  13,909 710 4
Stress, coping, and immunologic relevance: An empirical literature review
Chandra Sekhar Tripathy, Sarvodaya Tripathy, Bandna Gupta, Sujita Kumar Kar
May-June 2019, 39(3):107-113
Stress is an inevitable phenomenon in life. Stress plays a pivotal role in regulating the body's physiology. Stress also improves the survival skills of an individual. However, when stress becomes unmanageable, it starts affecting the individual adversely. The adverse effects of the stress alter the normal physiology and the mental well-being of the individual. People attempt to cope with their stressor using various coping strategies. Adapting coping strategies may help in successful handling of stress. Maladaptive coping strategies, on the other hand, though control stress, are often transient and may result in the impairment of mental health. Evidences suggest that stress significantly affects the immune system of the body. The effect of stress on the immune system may depend on the nature and severity of the stressor. Ineffective regulation of stress results in immune dysregulation. Effective coping strategies for handling stress might be useful to correct the immune dysregulation.
  13,791 707 3
Frameless stereotactic deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: A case report and technical note
Chun-Chieh Lin, Tung-Han Tsai, Yueh-Feng Sung, Da-Tong Ju, Yung-Hsiao Chiang, Yuan-Hao Chen
September-October 2014, 34(5):224-234
Because deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantations and other stereotactic and functional surgical procedures require accurate, precise, and safe targeting of the brain structure, the technical aids for preoperative planning, intervention, and postoperative follow-up have become increasingly important. In this paper, we introduce a case of advanced Parkinson's disease with 10 years of medical control in which the patient received subthalamic nuclei (STN) DBS therapy through frameless surgery. A preliminary outcomes analysis is also provided. The STN DBS was implanted using a frameless stereotaxy protocol. After identifying the STN by microelectrode recording (MER), the DBS electrodes were implanted and connected to an implanted programmable generator. Programming started 1 month after the operation, and the patient was followed up on regularly and 12 months of post-STN DBS unified Parkinson's disease rating scale were recorded. After 12 months of follow-up, the patient who received the frameless surgery showed a significant improvement in clinical motor functions compared with his preoperative scores. The frameless system has the advantage of providing accuracy in postoperative lead position survey and target deviation measurements with comparison to the preoperative planning image. The outcomes of frameless DBS surgery are similar to those of frame-based surgery, with the advantages being that frameless surgery can reduce the patient's discomfort, shorten the operation and MER time, and decrease the MER trajectory number.
  13,343 560 1
Correlation between liver function tests and metabolic syndrome in hepatitis-free elderly
Hung-Sheng Shang, Bing-Heng Yang, Cherng-Lih Perng, Sheng-Hue Tang, Chien-Ming Lin, Jin-Biou Chang
September-October 2015, 35(5):182-189
Background: We aimed to investigate the relationship between liver function tests (LFTs) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) as several studies have shown positive correlations between some of the LFTs, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), and MetS but have not fully explored the same in the elderly. Owing to the progress in public health, the aging of the general population becomes a major issue. Design: We enrolled subjects aged over 60 years who underwent routine health checkups in a Health Screening Center after excluding subjects with a history of hepatitis B or C infection, excessive alcohol consumption, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, acute hepatitis, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, or receiving medications for these diseases. Finally, 9,282 participants were eligible for analysis. Statistical Analysis: All data were tested for normal distribution with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and for homogeneity of variances with the Levene's test. A t-test was used to evaluate the differences between the two groups. Univariate and multivariate regressions were used to observe correlations between different parameters. Receiver operating characteristic curves of each LFT were used to predict MetS. Areas under curves and 95% confidence interval were also estimated and compared. Results: With the exception of aspartate aminotransferase and α-fetal protein, the results of LFTs, including total and direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ALT, and γ-GT, were altered in the group with MetS. Furthermore, the levels of γ-GT in men and ALP in women were independently associated with all MetS components and had the highest areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. Conclusion: Abnormal LFTs are highly correlated with MetS in the hepatitis-free elderly, with levels of γ-GT in men and ALP in women being the most important factors. LFTs may represent an auxiliary tool for the detection of MetS.
  13,472 294 1
Overview of clinical trials for dry age-related macular degeneration
Wen-Sheng Cheng, Da-Wen Lu, Chiao-Hsi Chiang, Charn-Jung Chang
July-August 2017, 37(4):121-129
The overall goal of treating age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is to target the underlying cause of the disease and prevent, or at least slow down, the loss of vision, which requires the preservation of the choroid, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and photoreceptors. At present, there is no proven drug treatment for dry AMD; however, the cessation of smoking and treatments based on the age-related eye diseases study vitamin formula combined with a healthy diet are considered the only options for slowing disease progression. A number of pharmaceutical agents are currently under evaluation for the treatment of dry AMD using strategies such as reduction RPE and photoreceptor loss, neuroprotection, visual cycle modulators, suppression of inflammation, prevention of oxidative damage, and choroidal perfusion enhancers. The hope is that some of these therapies will achieve significant improvement to current management and prevent future loss of vision in this devastating eye condition.
  12,308 1,328 6
Facial biometrics of Yorubas of Nigeria using Akinlolu-Raji image-processing algorithm
Adelaja Abdulazeez Akinlolu
March-April 2016, 36(2):39-45
Background: Forensic anthropology deals with the establishment of human identity using genetics, biometrics, and face recognition technology. This study aims to compute facial biometrics of Yorubas of Osun State of Nigeria using a novel Akinlolu-Raji image-processing algorithm. Materials and Methods: Three hundred Yorubas of Osun State (150 males and 150 females, aged 15–33 years) were selected as subjects for the study with informed consents and when established as Yorubas by parents and grandparents. Height, body weight, and facial biometrics (evaluated on three-dimensional [3D] facial photographs) were measured on all subjects. The novel Akinlolu-Raji image-processing algorithm for forensic face recognition was developed using the modified row method of computer programming. Facial width, total face height, short forehead height, long forehead height, upper face height, nasal bridge length, nose height, morphological face height, and lower face height computed from readings of the Akinlolu-Raji image-processing algorithm were analyzed using z-test (P ≤ 0.05) of 2010 Microsoft Excel statistical software. Results: Statistical analyzes of facial measurements showed nonsignificant higher mean values (P > 0.05) in Yoruba males compared to females. Yoruba males and females have the leptoprosopic face type based on classifications of face types from facial indices. Conclusions: Akinlolu-Raji image-processing algorithm can be employed for computing anthropometric, forensic, diagnostic, or any other measurements on 2D and 3D images, and data computed from its readings can be converted to actual or life sizes as obtained in 1D measurements. Furthermore, Yoruba males and females have the leptoprosopic face type.
  12,881 418 4
Model of coping strategies, resilience, psychological well-being, and perceived health among military personnel
Kuan-Jung Chen, Chia-Chen Yang, Hui-Hsun Chiang
March-April 2018, 38(2):73-80
Background: Military personnel are confronted with physiological and psychological changes caused by stress and exposure to trauma. Although resilience may be protective against psychopathology, very few studies have explored the relationships between the resilience and coping strategies. The study aims to assess how different coping strategies affect resilience, psychological well-being (PWB), and perceived health among military personnel. Subjects and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey. Nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) soldiers and nurses in the military medical center were recruited in Taiwan in November 2015. The survey comprised the Brief COPE Scale, Ryff's PWB Scale, and the Resilience Scale for Adults, which examined the relationships among coping strategies, PWB, resilience, and perceived health. Path analysis was applied. Results: We recruited 200 participants (145 male and 177 single) aged 24.6 ± 4.7 years (range, 18–46 years). Resilience (coefficient = 0.60, P < 0.001) and PWB (coefficient = 0.33, P < 0.001) were better when using more approach-oriented coping strategies and fewer avoidant coping strategies, whereas the opposite pattern was seen when using avoidant coping (coefficient = −0.31, P < 0.001 for resilience and coefficient = −.20, P < 0.1 for PWB). PWB significantly predicted perceived health (coefficient = 0.45, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Resilience is higher when positive approach-oriented coping strategies are used, which directly affects PWB, and in turn, predicts better-perceived health. Our conceptual model indicates that interventions designed to promote approach-oriented coping strategies may help military personnel develop improved resilience, PWB, and perceived health status.
  11,916 1,107 17
Bacille Calmette–Guerin lymphadenitis in infants: A lesser known entity – Report of two cases
T Santosh, Kanchan Kothari, Roshni Patil, Akash Kiran Jogi
September-October 2018, 38(5):239-243
Bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG) vaccine containing live-attenuated Mycobacterium bovis was first used in humans to prevent tuberculosis (TB) in 1921. Intradermal BCG vaccine gives rise to classic primary complex that consists of a cutaneous nodule at the site of injection and subclinical involvement of the regional lymph nodes, which is self-limiting and requires no treatment. BCG lymphadenitis is the most common complication of BCG vaccination. Fine-needle aspiration is the rapid, safe, and cost-effective method for diagnosis as well as the management of BCG lymphadenitis. Awareness of this lesser known entity is important to prevent misdiagnosis. We report two cases of 2½ month and 6-month healthy male infants with left axillary lymphadenopathy following BCG vaccination. Fine-needle aspiration from both the cases revealed features of necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis with Ziehl-Neelsen stain for acid-fast bacilli being positive in 2nd case. Ipsilateral regional lymph node enlargement following BCG vaccination is considered as the most common complication, some progress to suppuration. Very rarely disseminated BCG infection may develop in immune-compromised individuals, resulting in a devastating outcome. Variable strategies have been applied in treating lymphadenitis related to BCG vaccine in the past decade, ranging from observation, antimycobacterial therapy, aspiration, incision, and drainage to lymph node surgical excision.
  12,384 508 -
Prognostic role of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node status among breast cancer subtypes
Guo-Shiou Liao, Huan-Ming Hsu, Chi-Hong Chu, Zhi-Jie Hong, Chun-Yu Fu, Yu-Ching Chou, Mehra Golshan, Ming-Shen Dai, Teng-Wei Chen, Chan De-Chian, Wan-Chen Tsai, Chao-Wen Pan, Kuo-Feng Hsu, En-Nung Kao, Yi-Chih Hsu, Tsun-Hou Chang, Jyh-Cherng Yu
March-April 2018, 38(2):54-61
Context: Breast cancer subtype (BCS) and lymphovascular invasion (LVI) have both been independently demonstrated as prognostic factors. Aims: The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the prognostic power of LVI among BCSs. Settings and Design: From an institutional database, 2017 women with a histopathologically confirmed the diagnosis of breast cancer treated between January 2006 and December 2014 were consecutively selected. Subjects and Methods: Information recorded for each patient included age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, and date of death or last contact. Total incidences of recurrence or death from breast cancer were ascertained from follow-up lasting until 31 June 2013. Institutional review board approval was obtained through our institution's human investigations committee. Statistical Analysis Used: Univariate and multivariate survival analysis were performed using the Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards model with a stepwise backward elimination to derive a final model of variables with a significant independent relationship with overall survival (OS) and recurrent-free survival (RFS). All statistical analyses were two-sided with significance defined as P < 0.05. Results: For the entire cohort, the median follow-up OS period was 43.2 months. Tumor size, LVI, lymph node status, and treatment factors (operation type, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy) differed among subtypes with respect to OS and RFS. The highest incidence of LVI positivity (26.4% vs. 26.9%, respectively) and lymph node involvement (39.7% vs. 36.4%, respectively) occurred in the luminal B and luminal HER2 subtypes. There were significant differences in the OS and RFS rates according the LVI among the BCS. On multivariate analysis, there were significant differences in OS according to the status of lymph node-negative and LVI-positive in the luminal HER2 subtype, as well as lymph node-positive and LVI-positive in the triple negative (TN) subtype. There were also significant differences in RFS according to the status of lymph node-negative and LVI-positive in the luminal A subgroup. Conclusions: LVI in BCS was an important prognostic factor for OS and RFS. LVI and lymph node status were important prognostic factor for OS and RFS among BCSs. There were significant differences in OS according to the lymph node-negative and LVI-positive in the distribution of luminal HER2, the lymph node-positive, and LVI-positive in the distribution of TN. There were also significant differences in the RFS according to the lymph node-negative and LVI-positive in the luminal A.
  11,986 538 5
Movement disorder and epilepsy in subependymal nodular heterotopia
Anurag Lohmror, Richa Choudhary
July-August 2017, 37(4):172-174
Subependymal nodular heterotopia is a cortical development malformation that is commonly associated with refractory epilepsy. Patients with heterotopia show a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, from being asymptomatic to presenting with intractable seizures and intellectual impairment. We report a case of drug-resistant epilepsy with normal intelligence, having bilateral subependymal heterotopic nodules in the brain, presenting to us with a movement disorder in the form of myoclonus of bilateral lower limbs which is an unusual manifestation of gray matter heterotopias. Although rare, gray matter heterotopias may present as movement disorder and should be considered in differential diagnosis while workup of movement disorders.
  12,081 353 1
Diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma-review
Rajeshwar Singh, AP Dubey, Anvesh Rathore, Rajan Kapoor, Durgesh Sharma, Nilabh Kumar Singh, Sachin Maggo
July-August 2018, 38(4):137-143
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common histologic subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) accounting for approximately 30 percent of all NHL cases, involving both nodal and extra-nodal sites. Apart from distinct morphological and clinicopathological subtypes, DLBCL can be dived into molecular subtypes, Germimal Centre Subtype (GCB) and Activated B-Cell (ABC) based on gene expression profiling. IPI (International Prognostication Index) and its variants are used to prognosticate the patients. Limited stage DLBCL is primarily treated with combined modality therapy consisting of abbreviated systemic chemotherapy (three cycles), and involved field radiation therapy, whereas advanced stage disease is treated with full course of chemotherapy with recommendation of addition of novel agents ( Bortezomib, Ibrutinib, Lenalidomide) in ABC type DLBCL.
  11,014 1,236 4
Fistula in ano presenting as postcoital scrotal discharge
Abhishek Bose, Sandeep Sharma, Jaspal Singh, Harmandeep S Chahal
July-August 2015, 35(4):173-175
A 32-year-old male presented to us with the history of purulent discharge from scrotum since 5 months ago, with increased amount of discharge during sexual intercourse. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a fistula tract ending at the root of the penis. However, intraoperatively it was found to be communicating with the anal canal. Fistula in ano rarely presents with an external opening in the scrotum. We could not find any published literature in this regard. Complex fistula in ano therefore should be considered in cases of scrotal discharging sinus.
  11,374 322 -
Bipedicled flap reconstruction of soft tissue defect with Achilles tendon exposure
Chin-Ta Lin, Chi-Yu Chen, Shun-Cheng Chang
May-June 2014, 34(3):129-132
Soft tissue defects exposing the Achilles tendon are common in patients who have undergone trauma or in those with pressure ulcers associated with vascular diseases. Here, we present our recent experience of using a bipedicled fasciocutaneous flap to resurface the complex soft tissue defect and provide a gliding surface for the exposed Achilles tendon. The donor-sites were covered with split-thickness skin grafts and healed well without complications. The bipedicled fasciocutaneous flap survived completely, and the wound healed satisfactorily at 2 months follow-up. The bipedicled fasciocutaneous flap is a reliable flap for coverage of defects overlying the Achilles tendon, especially in patients with vascular problems and/or advanced age. The ease of handling, short operative time, and early recovery of mobilization function are of great benefit to patients. This method can be a valuable alternative for defect reconstructions overlying the Achilles tendon, with satisfactory results both functionally and cosmetically.
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Depression, anxiety, and heart rate variability: A case-control study in Taiwan
Li-Fen Chen, Chuan-Chia Chang, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Terry B. J. Kuo, Yu-Chen Kao, San-Yuan Huang, Hsin-An Chang
January-February 2014, 34(1):9-18
Objective: Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) has been reported in persons with major depressive disorder (MDD), but the results obtained are inconsistent. Little is known about the impact of comorbid anxiety disorders on HRV in MDD patients. Both issues necessitate further investigation. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine unmedicated, physically healthy, MDD patients without comorbidity, 21 MDD patients with comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 24 MDD patients with comorbid panic disorder (PD), and 81 matched controls were recruited. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale are employed to assess the severity of depression and anxiety, respectively. The cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by measuring the HRV parameters. The frequency-domain indices of HRV were obtained. Results: MDD patients without comorbidity had lower high-frequency (HF)-HRV (which reflected vagal control of HRV) than controls. Any comorbid anxiety disorder (GAD or PD) was associated with significantly faster heart rates, relative to the controls, and caused greater reductions in HF-HRV among MDD patients. MDD participants with comorbid GAD displayed the greatest reductions in HF-HRV, relative to controls. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of both depression and anxiety were significantly associated with the mean R wave to R wave (R-R) intervals, variance, low-frequency (LF)-HRV, and HF-HRV. Conclusion: The present results show decreased HRV in MDD patients, suggesting that reduction in HRV is a psychophysiological marker of MDD. MDD patients with comorbid GAD had the greatest reductions in HRV. Further investigation of the links between MDD and comorbid GAD, HRV, and cardiovascular disease is warranted.
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